Goodman, Catherine Chase, Marilyn Potts, Eileen Mayers Pasztor, and Dolores Scorzo. Children and Youth Services Review 26, no. 3 (2004): 287-305.
The study that this article discusses examined 500+ grandmothers providing full kinship care, informally (private) and formally (public), for their grandchildren. The results implied that child welfare was targeting at risk families successfully. While there was an indication that private kinship care providers had cared for their grandchild longer, there was evidence that, among other things, kinship care providers likely were the guardian of their grandchildren due to parental drug use and neglect.