Demographics and Specific Populations

Sources in this section provide data on the demographics of grandfamilies as well as analysis of specific grandfamily populations.

1. Carlow, Jen, Carroll, Aleeshia and Savanna Power. “A Profile of Kinship Foster Care  Families in Maine” Adoptive and Foster Families of Maine. (2016). 2-16.

This paper serves as a demographic analysis of kinship families in the state of Maine. Its purpose is to investigate the quality of life for kinship families and to identify needs, gaps in services and other information to help with the further goals of advocacy and program development. The research for this paper was conducted in partnership with the non-profit Adoptive and Foster Families of Maine (AFFM) and research participants included 111 kinship caregiver member of AFFM support groups. Significant findings from the research include many participants citing they do not utilize kinship services and that they are not receiving any financial support in caring for their children.

2. Luo, Ye, Tracey A. LaPierre, Mary Elizabeth Hughes, and Linda J. Waite. “Grandparents providing care to grandchildren a population-based study of continuity and change.” Journal of Family Issues 33, no. 9 (2012): 1143-116

“This study examines transitions in grandchild care and the characteristics of grandparents making these transitions, using longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample of 13,626 grandparents in the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study. More than 60% of grandparents provided grandchild care over the 10-year period; more than 70% of those did it for 2 years or more. Grandparents with fewer functional limitations and more economic resources were more likely to start or continue nonresidential care, whereas relatively disadvantaged grandparents were more likely to start and continue coresidential care. Grandparents who were African American, younger, married, living with fewer minor children of their own, or had more grandchildren were more likely to start care, particularly nonresidential care. African Americans and Hispanics were more likely than Whites to start and continue coresidential care. These findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of caregiving and point to the lack of resources among those who provide coresidential care” (Journal of Family Issues).

3. Minkler, Meredith, and Esme Fuller-Thomson. “African American grandparents raising grandchildren: A national study using the Census 2000 American Community Survey.” The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 60, no. 2 (2005): S82-S92.

Using the 2000 census, the authors of this article collected data on the prevalence and socioeconomic characteristics of African American grandparents raising grandchildren. The data was obtained specifically from the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey/American Community Survey and results indicated a gender and financial disparity in these families. Caregivers were found to be disproportionately female, younger and more likely to be living below the poverty line. The authors also underscore the need to expand public assistance outreach as a large number of poor African American grandmother-headed families do not receive aid.

4. Mutchler, Jan E., and Lindsey A. Baker. “A demographic examination of grandparent caregivers in the Census 2000 Supplementary Survey.” Population Research and Policy Review 23, no. 4 (2004): 359-377.

This article looks at data comparing two types of grandparent households: skipped-generation-households (where only grandparent(s) and grandchildren present, no parents) to three-generation-shared care households (grandparents, parents and children all co-reside together). The authors use data collected from the 2000 Census Supplementary Survey and focus on the two geographic regions of New England and the Deep South. Their results indicate that differences exist between skipped-generation-households and three-generation-shared-households, including the age of grandchildren involved and levels of economic hardship. Results also indicated a regional difference in grandfamilies population as data showed more of both types of grandparent households being in the South than New England.

5. Mutchler, Jan E., SeungAh Lee, and Lindsey A. BakerGrandparent Care in the American Indian/Alaska Native Population. Boston, MA: Gerontology Institute and Department, University of Massachusetts Boston. (2006)

This article provides information on the population of Native American (American Indian/Alaska Native) grandfamilies. Using data from the 2000 census, the authors examine both grandparent skipped-generation-households and three-generation-shared-households among the Native American population.

6. Mutchler, Jan E., SeungAh Lee, and Lindsay A. Baker. Grandparent Care in the Asian Population. Boston, MA: Gerontology Institute and Department, University of Massachusetts Boston. (2006).

This article provides information on the population of Asian American grandfamilies. Using data from the 2000 census, the authors examine both grandparent skipped-generation-households and three-generation-shared-households among the Asian American population.

7. Mutchler, Jan E., SeungAh Lee, and Lindsay A. Baker. Grandparent Care in the Latino/Hispanic Population. Boston, MA: Gerontology Institute and Department, University of Massachusetts Boston. (2006).

This article provides information on the population of Latino/Hispanic grandfamilies. Using data from the 2000 census, the authors examine both grandparent skipped-generation-households and three-generation-shared-households among the Latino/Hispanic population.

8. Mutchler, Jan E, SeungAh Lee, and Lindsay A. Baker. Grandparent Care in the non-Hispanic white Population. Boston, MA: Gerontology Institute and Department, University of Massachusetts Boston. (2006).

This article provides information on the population of non-Hispanic white grandfamilies. Using data from the 2000 census, the authors examine both grandparent skipped-generation-households and three-generation-shared-households among the non-Hispanic white population.

9. Mutchler, Jan E, SeungAh Lee, and Lindsay A. Baker. Grandparent Care in the United States: Comparisons by Race and Ethnicity. Boston, MA: Gerontology Institute and Department, University of Massachusetts Boston. (2006). 

This article provides a summary and comparison of grandparent-headed households among 5 different racial and ethnic groups: African Americans, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Latino/Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. Data for all 5 groups was collected from the 2000 Census.

10. Strozier, Anne L., and Kerry Krisman. “Capturing caregiver data: An examination of kinship care custodial arrangements.” Children and Youth Services Review 29, no. 2 (2007): 226-246.

This study examines the experiences of both formal and informal kinship caregivers by presenting data collected from June 2003 to October 2005 from the Kinship Care Warmline in Florida. The Kinship Warmline is a referral telephone line offering information, education and emotional support on kinship care issues. The researchers collected data on three questions: “(1) What are the demographics and basic needs of a large group of kinship caregivers in a Southern state? (2) Do kinship caregiver and children demographics differ by formal versus informal custody arrangements? (3) Do the needs identified by kinship caregivers differ significantly by formal versus informal custody arrangements?” Their results showed that the biggest difference between formal versus informal kinship caregivers were found for the need for more information on available resources and counseling services for children.

 11. Yancura, Loriena A. “Justifications for caregiving in White, Asian American, and Native Hawaiian grandparents raising grandchildren.” The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 68, no. 1 (2013): 139-144.

This study examines relationships between race/ethnicity and the reasons and expectations for caregiving in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and White GRG (grandparents raising grandchildren). The authors used a sample of 259 GRG within a local public school system and provided the participants with a modified version of the 10-item Cultural Justifications for Caregiving (CJCG) scale. Two analytic factors of the scale, custom and responsibility, produced meaningful results: with Native Hawaiian GRG having significantly higher scores than White or Asian American GRG. Native Hawaiian GRG also scored higher than Asian American, but not White, GRG on responsibility. The authors conclude that race/ethnicity does predict justification for grandparents raising grandchildren.

 

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